Side-view of the CA-1 Wirraway (as produced by the factory) showing it's distinguishing
- Corrugated skin on the vertical stabilizer (at least the first 5
aircraft, and maybe as many as 20 also had corrugated skins on the horizontal
- Antenna mast in front of the windshield
- Open rear end of canopy section above the observer's
- Twin fixed Vickers Mark V .303 machine guns synchronized to
fire through the propeller, with leather boots protecting
the trigger motors
- Single Vickers Gas-Operated .303 Mark 1 No. 1 machine gun on a
flexible mount in the rear cockpit
- Single air-cleaner intake under
the engine cowl
- Cowl cut away next to the exhaust outlets
A total of 40 Wirraways were produced under the CA-1
contract, with CAC construction numbers 1-40 and RAAF serial
numbers A20-3 to A20-43
The development of the Wirraway is inseparably linked with the birth of
the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation.
During the mid-1930s several business leaders and politicians realised that Australia lacked the ability to produce modern
military aircraft, and this may leave the country in a
vulnerable position if war broke out and traditional supply
sources were cut. Until that time, the fledgling RAAF had relied
upon British companies to supply all of it's aircraft, in line
with government policy of the time, and Australian companies were
only capable of assembling small numbers of aircraft from parts
or carrying out repairs. So in co-operation with the government,
a group of business leaders (including
Essington Lewis from
Broken Hill Proprietary,
Laurence Hartnett from General Motors
William Robinson from Broken Hill Smelters) formed a syndicate
in February 1936 to study whether it would be possible to develop
a self-sufficient aircraft industry in Australia, based on local raw
materials and industrial facilities. The announcement predictably drew the
consternation of aircraft producers and politicians in Britain, the British Board of Trade expressing on
February 20th that it
opposed" to the move. The involvement
of an American corporation (General Motors, through it's
part-ownership of General Motors Holden) also became an
issue, with the British military refusing to allow British
companies to divulge any technical secrets to an Australian company which was partly
owned in the US.
At the same time as announcing the formation of the
syndicate, the companies sent a technical committee of three experts (Wing Commander Lawrence Wackett,
Wing Commander Herbert Harrison
and Air Commodore Arthur Murphy) on a tour of Britain, Europe and the United States to select an aircraft design
for CAC to produce. The committee met with aircraft and engine
companies in England, Germany, France, The Netherlands, and Czechoslovakia, using the following guidelines as they
considered designs which may be suitable for production by a new company in Australia:
- Not too complex for production by a
newly-established company and suppliers with little or no
aircraft manufacturing experience;
- Manufactured using techniques which can be
applied to a range of other aircraft;
- Manufacturing should maximise the use of jigs and
tools, so that in an emergency it could be produced by
a semi-skilled labour force;
- Incorporate design characteristics which were
expected to become more prevalent in future types, such as
all-metal and stressed-skin construction
In fact the leadership of the syndicate fully expected that the first design selected for manufacture by the proposed
company would be a general purpose or training type, rather than the latest fighter or bomber aircraft.
The technical committee left Melbourne for their tour on February 19th 1936 and returned on July 14th. On returning
from their tour, Wackett reflected that in his opinion the RAF was "in the front rank" of air forces around the world. However the committee unanimously recommended the
new NA-16-1A design from the recently formed North
American Aviation Incorporated (NAA) in California, together with the single-row Wasp radial engine from the
new Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company in Connecticut. This selection caused further uproar in the United Kingdom, where it
was expected that a British design would be selected for production by the new company. The committee were asked to re-consider their
selection by the Air Board (the controlling body of the RAAF), and during October and November 1936 the British government
exerted much pressure on the Australian government to reverse the decision. But following an explanation of the facts behind
the decision the Air Board threw it's support behind the selection.
Further controversy followed when it was revealed that General Motors (the US parent of General Motors Holden) also held 30% of the
shares of NAA. Despite the technical merits of the NA-16 design this was a clear conflict of interests and GMH offered to
withdraw it's interest in CAC, but eventually remained involved with a smaller share-holding. The technical skills in light
manufacturing which GMH could bring to the project were critical to it's success.
The NA-16-1A was a two-seat basic training (BT-type) aircraft design developed from the NAA NA-16 demonstrator. The NA-16 was
the first aircraft designed by NAA, developed as a private venture aimed at export markets as well as the US military. The NA-16 first flew on
April 1st, 1935 in an open cockpit configuration with fixed landing gear, powered by a Wright R-975 radial engine. Marketing
brochures produced by NAA at the time showed a planned range of aircraft based on the NA-16 which included a 2-seat bomber (with
longer wing-span), a single-seat fighter (with reduced wing-span) and options for retractable landing gear. NAA entered
the NA-16 in a competition for a Basic Trainer aircraft run by the US Army Air Corps at Wright Field in May 1935, and although
the NA-16 did not win the competition an order for 42 BT-9 aircraft resulted due to it's good performance and possibly the political
clout of General Motors.
||Earliest ancestor of the
Wirraway - the North American NA-16 private venture
basic training aircraft.
The NA-16 demonstrator
NX-2080 is shown here
in it's original form with open-cockpits and
powered by a Wright R-975 engine.
Note how the R-975
engine was arranged with the exhaust collector ring in
front of the cylinders.
The project to develop the NA-16-1A for CAC was given the NAA accounting code NA-32, so as well as
it's official NAA designation of NA-16-1A it was also known by this NA-32 code. To confuse the situation further, the popular
press in Australia shortened the official NA-16-1A designation and referred to the design as simply the NA-16 (even though this was
actually a different aircraft). The NA-16-1A was almost identical to the NJ-1 (NA-28) advanced training aircraft ordered by the US
Navy and the Y1BT-10 (NA-29) demonstrator developed for the Navy by NAA. It featured fixed landing gear, a single gun firing
forward through the propeller, a rear-firing gun on a flexible mount in the observer's cockpit and the more powerful R-1340 Wasp
engine from Pratt & Whitney (the engine supplier favoured by the US Navy).
During the later half of 1936 the original three syndicate members were joined by Imperial Chemical Industries A.N.Z., the Electrolytic Zinc Company of
Australasia and The Orient Steam Navigation Company and the creation of a company to produce aircraft and engines was
initiated. The Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Pty. Ltd. was registered in Victoria in October 1936.
In January 1937 the Lyons government defended it's action in selecting the NA-16-1A design with a statement by the Minster for Defence Archdale Parkhill
justifying the selection of the NA-16-1A on the grounds of urgency and the lack of a suitable British design.
On January 7th 1937 the Air Board sent a letter to CAC advising that the government was prepared to order 40 NA-16 type
aircraft, assuming that prices and terms could be agreed. The letter backed up the decision by the government:
"You are aware that is has been the policy only to use approved types of British aircraft and engines for the
equipment of units of the Royal Australian Air Force and for this reason the Government has given serious consideration
to your proposals which involve the introduction of foreign, in preference to British, types of aircraft and engines.
Owing, however, to the abnormal position now being experienced in the British aircraft industry it is agreed
that the proposals submitted by your Company offer the most satisfactory means of establishing the industry
expeditiously and on a sound basis."
On the basis of this letter, CAC set about organising materials, machinery, suppliers and a workforce to commence
production of the NA-16-1A.
||CAC ordered one NA-16-1A aircraft for evaluation purposes. North American Aviation produced this aircraft under the accounting
code NA-32. Only one NA-16-1A was produced, with the NAA serial number 32-387.
shows the NA-16-1A is shown in California prior to delivery to Australia.
Image copyright expired, courtesy of the San Diego Air and Space Museum archive.
Lawrence Wackett returned to the United States in March 1937 to make arrangements for licensing the NA-16-1A design to CAC and to purchase
production equipment for the new CAC factory, which was under construction. On his arrival he discovered that since his first visit, NAA had developed several
improvements to the NA-16 series (including retractable undercarriage and a more powerful engine and a range of armament
options) which changed the character of the aircraft from a "basic trainer" (BT) type to a "basic combat" (BC) type. Adding
these improvements to the NA-16-1A design under the project accounting code NA-33, resulted in a new design that was
designated NA-16-1K by NAA. Wackett left the US with license rights for CAC
to manufacture both the NA-16-1A (NA-32) advanced trainer and the NA-16-2K (NA-33) basic combat designs.
The license deal signed on March 10th 1937 included a fee of US$100,000 for the two designs, US$30,000 for the specifications and
manufacturing data, a US$1,000 royalty for each of the first 25 aircraft produced and a US$600 royalty for each of the subsequent
75 aircraft produced.
The NA-16-1A arrived in Australia in August 1937 and made its first flight on September 3rd in the hands of Squadron Leader
F.R.W. Scherger. Flight tests at Point Cook continued until September 15th.
In late September 1937 CAC submitted a proposal to the Air Board that the RAAF should purchase the NA-16-2K aircraft rather than the NA-16-1A, since
it could carry out advanced training duties as well as basic combat duties with it's expanded capabilities. The Air Board
asked CAC to provide one of each design so that comparative performance tests could be carried out to justify the extra cost of the
NA-16-2K, which was being offered by CAC at £8,098 (compared with the NA-16-1A at £7,200).
The NA-16-2K arrived in Australia in mid-November.
||CAC also ordered one
aircraft for evaluation purposes, produced by NAA under the
accounting code NA-33 (serial number 33-388). It arrived in Australia in
This photo shows the NA-16-2K in California prior
to it's delivery to Australia.
The NA-16-2K featured retractable landing gear, a geared
engine driving a three-bladed propeller at 66.6% of the
crankshaft speed and several other improvements over the
Image copyright expired, courtesy of the San Diego
Air and Space Museum archive.
On January 14th 1938 the Air Board wrote to the Defence
Department to inform the Minister that trials of the two aircraft
confirmed the NA-16-2K had superior performance and more
desirable features. The Air Board recommended that the NA-16-2K design
(stressed to a safety factor of 8.5 at an all-up weight of 5,500
lbs) should be put into production. This was agreed by the
Minister of Defence, H.W. Thorby in a Ministerial Minute on
"I approve of the Air Board's recommendation that the
type of aircraft to be ordered should be the N.A. 33. There
is no objection to the Company being advised accordingly,
but before the order is confirmed at £8,098 each for the
machines and £2,200 for the spare engines, I desire the Air Board to
furnish all evidence it is able to obtain supporting the
reasonableness of the prices quoted."
Following this decision, the RAAF placed an order with CAC under
Contract Demand T.374 on March 15th 1938 (the order also included 10 spare Wasp engines). The
unit price for each aircraft was £8,098 and the total cost for
the order was £349,920.
||A copy of Contract Demand T.374 issued
by the RAAF on March 15, 1938 for the first 40 Wirraway aircraft, which
would be produced by CAC under the project code CA-1.
A detailed analysis of the prices quoted for the NA-33
aircraft was conducted, comparing them against prices for
imported Hawker Demon aircraft. The results were presented in a
Department of Defence Ministerial Minute on May 5th 1938:
Landed cost ... £5,850
excluding duty, but including special
armament, navigation and wireless equipment to the
value of £281.
Total ... £5,580
Price quoted by CAC ... £8,098
Plus special equipment, navigational and
wireless equipment to be issued by the Department
Total ... £8,548
Less special features included in the Wirraway
but not in the Demon, vide paragraph 6 of Air Board
Minute of 15/3/38 the value of which I am advised by
the Air Board is in the region of ... £1,600
Less additional equipment over and above that
included in the Demon and assessed by the Air Board
at ... £170
Total ... £6,778
|In view of the fact
that the performance and type of construction of the
Wirraway are superior to the Demon, it appears that
the quotation of £8,098 for the Wirraway is
reasonable, particularly as it will be manufactured
locally. The Air Board's recommendation is
accordingly approved, and authority is given for the
order of 40 aircraft , at £8,098 each, and 10 spare
engines, at £2,600 each, to be placed with the
Company for early delivery.
The choice of the name "Wirraway" (from the Woi
Wurrung language group of the local Wurundjeri Nation, meaning
"to challenge" in English) for the new aircraft was officially announced
to the public by the Air Board on April 7th 1938, stories
appearing in newspapers the following day.
A number of changes to the NA-16-2K design and equipment
fit-out were implemented as it was put into production. These
- Tubes in the rear fuselage for releasing parachute
- The addition of a second forward-firing machine gun in front
of the pilot (earlier versions of the NA-16 family - such as the
NA-18 of 1935 - already featured two forward-firing machine
guns). The guns were changed from US-built Browning models to
0.303" calibre Vickers Mark V. A large magazine holding
1,200 rounds (600 for each gun) was installed just aft of the
firewall below the guns, which required relocating the hydraulic
fluid header tank to the port side of the fuselage beside the
- Addition of a chute and box to catch and store shell casings
(on the NA-16-2K the shell casings were ejected via a chute on
the starboard side of the forward fuselage). The box was in the
centre of the wing, in front of the forward spar and between the
wheel wells. It was emptied after every flight if the forward
guns had been fired;
- Modifications to the rear gun-mount (in the NA-16-2K the
rear gun could be stored under a hatch in the rear fuselage top
- Changes to the exhaust system (two outlets instead of 1);
- Modifications to the air cleaner for the oil cooler and cold carburetor
- Addition of bomb slips in the outer wings, along with
control panels in both cockpits and wiring required for
electrical bomb release;
- Changes to the drawings to use
(British Association) metric screw threads for small
fittings rather than US standards;
- It has also been noted elsewhere that the design was
strengthened to allow for dive-bombing (evidence supporting
this suggestion has not been found); and
- Many other small detail changes
In July 1938
Sir Edward Ellington (Inspector General of the
Royal Air Force) submitted a report on the capabilities of the
RAAF to the Minister for Defence, Archdale Parkhill. Ellington
had been asked to provide an independent view of the RAAF, and
among the content of his report was criticism of the selection
of the NA-16-2K design which was then under
construction at CAC's plant in Fisherman's Bend:
"I understand that it is intended to use it in
replacement of the Demon as a fighter-bomber. I consider
that the Wirraway should be regarded as a temporary
expedient... it can only be regarded as an advanced training
He went on to suggest that the choice of a new type (to be
produced instead of the Wirraway) should be delayed until a
suitable aircraft had been tested in Britain. This suggestion
almost marked the end of the Wirraway project, as when the
report was released to the public by Prime Minister Lyons in
September 1938 there was a great deal of speculation in the
press that the
Wirraway would be cancelled, or at least no more orders would be
placed beyond the initial order for 40 aircraft. The Canberra
Times reported on September 2nd 1938 that "fighting aircraft"
would be built by CAC instead of more Wirraway trainers:
This will mean the cancellation of an order which the
Commonwealth Government had intended to lodge early next
year for 60 or 70 additional Wirraways. In reaching this
decision the Government has been influenced by the statement
by the British expert, Sir Edward Ellington in his report on
the R.A.A.F. to the Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons) that the
Wirraway has insufficient speed for a fighter, but is quite
suitable for training".
As it turned out, the Government did not accept Ellington's
recommendation, and additional orders for Wirraway production continued after the CA-1
Apart from constructing a new factory on a green-field
site, CAC needed to develop an entirely new supply chain for highly advanced materials
and components from scratch for the Wirraway
project. This is one of the most significant elements of the
work which the CAC team led, and is largely unrecognised. Newly
- Australian Aluminium Company producing sandwich "Alclad"
- The Australian Forge and Engineering Pty. Ltd. in
Lidcombe, NSW, supplying a range of forgings;
- Stewarts and Lloyds in Newcastle, NSW, producing forged
cylinder blanks for the Wasp engines;
- De Havilland Australia in Bankstown, NSW, producing
Hamilton Standard propellers under license;
- British Tube Mills in Adelaide, SA, producing
chrome-molybdenum alloy steel tube for the framework;
- James N. Kirby Pty. Ltd. in Sydney, NSW, making
Of course this new supply chain could not ramp up all of
these these new technologies in time for production of the first
aircraft, and a number of the first aircraft off the production
line were assembled using many imported components from NAA.
As the first Wirraway was nearing it's first test-flight, public interest intensified and newspapers reported progress
on a regular basis. The first flight was announced for March 25th 1939, but
problems with the landing gear caused a delay of two days. When the
Wirraway made it's first flight it is obvious that the
undercarriage doors were not fitted.
Just over one year after contract demand T.374 was issued,
the first CAC-built Wirraway took to the air on March 27th 1939
in the hands of CAC test pilot Hubert Boss-Walker.
||The first CAC-built Wirraway (A20-3) on
the day of it's first flight, March 27th 1939.
Notice the lack of undercarriage doors, armament and
unknown, linked from the Owen O'Malley & 462 Squadron
By the declaration of war on September 3rd 1939, the RAAF had
taken delivery of 7 Wirraways.
||A flight of three CA-1 Wirraways
(A20-4, A20-10 and A20-11) of 22 Squadron near Point
Cook. Note the original style air
cleaner (single intake) under the cowl.
closest of these three aircraft, A20-10, is held in the
collection of the Australian National Aviation Museum in
Moorabbin, Victoria. Although it appears to have a
2-bladed propeller, Wirraway aircraft were fitted with
3-bladed propellers - the appearance is only a
Image linked from the RAAF historical image archive.
|General characteristics CAC CA-1
||27 ft 10 in (8.48 m)
||42 ft 10½ in (13.07 m)
[most references incorrectly quote 43 ft 0 in (13.11 m)
as the wingspan, but this does not take into account the
dihedral on the outer wing panels which reduces the span
||8 ft 8¾ in (2.66 m)
||255¾ ft² (23.76 m²)
||3,992 lb (1,810 kg)
|Max. takeoff weight:
||6,595 lb (2,991 kg)
||1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340 S1H1G
super-charged 9-cylinder radial engine
of 600 hp (450 kW) driving a 3-bladed De Havilland
propeller via a 2:3 reduction drive (the propeller spins at
66.6% of crankshaft speed).
||191 knots (220 mph, 350 km/h)
||135 knots (155 mph, 250 km/h)
||720 miles (630 nm, 1,200 km)
||23,000 ft (7,010 m)
|Rate of climb:
||1,950 ft/min (9.9 m/s)
- 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers Mark V machine guns synchronised to fire through the
arc with 600 rounds for each gun stored in a removable
magazine below the guns, and
- 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers GO (gas operated) No. 1
Mark 1 machine gun on
a flexible mount in the rear cockpit.
- Later in their service life some CA-1 aircraft
were modified to carry 2 x 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning Mk II
machine guns under the wings, with ammunition carried
inside the wings.
||4 universal carriers on the outer wings
(2 per side) for carrying up to 500 lbs of bombs, for
use with the following:
- 100 lb anti-submarine (A.S.)
- 112 lb high explosive (H.E.)
- 120 lb general purpose (G.P.)
- 250 lb general purpose (G.P.)
- 250 lb semi armour-piercing (S.A.P.)
- 250 lb anti-submarine (A.S.)
- 250 lb high explosive Royal Laboratory (R.L.)
On aircraft A20-30 to A20-42 the inboard
universal carriers are strengthened to carry 500 lb S.A.P.
bombs, in which case the maximum bomb load is 1,000 lbs.
6 light series carriers on the centre section (3 per
side) for carrying:
- 8½ lb Mark 1 practice bombs or
- 11½ lb Mark 1 practice bombs
- 8 mechanically-controlled carriers on the centre
section for dropping 4-inch reconnaissance flares
- 2 tubes for 4-inch reconnaissance flares in the
- Verey signal-flare pistol with 8 cartridges
carried in front cockpit
||A dramatic picture of preparations for a night flight in a
CA-1 Wirraway showing the single air intake for the oil cooler under the cowl. Note
also that there is no air intake on the upper starboard side of the
cowl (in the 10 o-clock position when viewed from ahead). The
ribbed housing for the propeller reduction gears is also
prominent on the Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine.
Image copyright expired, courtesy of the AWM archive.
The first CA-1 aircraft delivered to the RAAF were A20-4 and
A20-5, handed over on July 7th 1939. Deliveries continued until the last CA-1
(A20-43) was accepted on February 21st 1940.
RAAF strength of CA-1 Wirraways peaked at 39 aircraft (since
A20-20 was struck off charge while other CA-1 aircraft were
still being delivered). The last CA-1 to be
struck off charge by the RAAF was A20-13 on May 3rd 1960, so
CA-1 Wirraway aircraft were operated by the RAAF for a total of
22 years and 2 months.
CA-1 Wirraway aircraft served with 22 different RAAF units, including
- 1 Squadron
- 2 Squadron
- 12 Squadron
- 21 Squadron
- 22 Squadron
- 23 Squadron
- 25 Squadron
- 54 Squadron
- 120 Squadron (Netherlands East Indies)
- 452 Squadron
- 457 Squadron
- 2 Service Flying Training School (Forest Hill)
- 3 Service Flying Training School (Amberley)
- 5 Service Flying Training School (Uranquinty)
- 7 Service Flying Training School (Deniliquin)
- Advanced Flight Training School
- Advanced Aerial Gunnery School
- Central Flying School
- Richmond Station Headquarters
- Advanced Flying & Refresher Unit (Deniliquin)
- 2 Operational Training Unit
- 8 Operational Training Unit
One CA-1 (A20-28) was converted to CA-20 specifications and served with the RAN Fleet Air Arm and one (A20-31)
was allocated to the United States 5th Air Force for a period of
Of the 40 CA-1 aircraft produced, 14 were destroyed in
crashes (including one lost on a ferry flight from Port Moresby
to Tanamerah) in which 21 airmen lost their lives.
The following table provides a summary of all the aircraft
produced under contract CA-1:
|CAC Construction number:
||RAAF serial number:
||Received by RAAF:
||Struck off charge by RAAF:
||The first Wirraway produced by CAC.
Deployed to Darwin in September 1939 with 12 Squadron.
||Deployed to Darwin in September 1939
with 12 Squadron. Crew Arnold Dolphin (pilot) and Harold
Johnson (observer) were killed when the aircraft crashed
at Darwin civil aerodrome.
||Deployed to Darwin in September 1939
with 12 Squadron.
||Deployed to Darwin in September 1939
with 12 Squadron.
||Deployed to Darwin in September 1939
with 12 Squadron.
||On static display at Australian
National Air Museum, Moorabbin, Victoria.
||On static display at in Port Moresby
||Destroyed in a mid-air collision with
A20-228 on 29/12/1941 over Wantabadgery, near Junlee
NSW. Pilot F/Sgt W.H. Jones and observer LAC V. Vickers
were both killed.
||Destroyed in a crash on 29/05/1940 at
Southport, Queensland. Killed were pilot P/O K.A. Goman
and observer W/T P.J. Pritchard.
||Destroyed in a crash near Hazelbrook,
NSW in the Blue Mountains on 1 August 1940 in foggy
conditions. The pilot Flying Officer Harry Thomas
Hopgood and observer Sgt Vincent Charles Monterola were
both killed in the crash.
||Modified to CA-20 standard and
transferred to RAN.
||Destroyed in a crash 23/05/1942 near
Warral (close to Tamworth, NSW). Pilot
F/O D.S. Ambrose and observer P/O F.C. Fenly were both
||Destroyed in a crash 2 miles north of
Laverton airbase on 15/01/1940. The pilot P/O J.N.
Alexander and observer Temp/Sgt W.K. Platt were both
||Destroyed in a crash on 08/08/1942 near
Tamworth, NSW. The pilot F/Lt C.A. Dawson and observer
LAC G. Patterson were both killed in the crash.
||Converted to CAC Ceres CA28-21.
||Destroyed in a crash 2 miles west of
Brucedale on 17/12/1940. Pilot Lac J.G. Lemon was
||Converted to CA-20 and served with the
||Sold to L&M Newman
||Issued to USAAC 5th Air Force June
1943. Returned to RAAF March 1944.
||Converted to components.
||Destroyed in a crash during a solo
night training flight near Wagga. Pilot LAC T. Tweedie
was killed in the crash.
||Destroyed in a crash near Deniliquin.
Both crew members LAC R.W. McKay and LAC L.S. Simmons
were killed in the crash.
||Destroyed in a crash near Shepherd's
Siding. Pilot LAC M.A. Lowe bailed out and was OK.
||Badly damaged in a crash near Wagga.
Both crew members F/O Grant and LAC R.D. Browne survived
uninjured. Converted to components.
||Sold as scrap.
||Converted to components.
||Sold as scrap.
||Destroyed in a crash near Sackville
NSW. Both crew F/Sgt Bassett and Sgt Blackburn were
||Destroyed in a crash near Uranquinty
NSW. Pilot LAC J.D. Mahoney parachuted safely.
||Converted to components.
- "IN FRONT RANK."The Canberra Times(ACT: 1926 - 1954) 14 Jul 1936: 1. Web. 22 Mar 2012 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2421840>
- Hagedorn, Dan. North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ (WarbirdTech
Volume 11). North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 1997. ISBN
0-933424-76-0. Pages 10-11
- "AIRCRAFT BUILDING."The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) 18 Sep 1936:
11. Web. 22 Mar 2012 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17279448>.
- "WIRRAWAYS ORDER ABANDONED FOR NEXT YEAR." The
Canberra Times (ACT: 1926 - 1954) 2 September 1938: Web.
1 April 2012 <http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2467911>
- RAAF Operations Record Book Form A.50 for 12 Squadron,
September 1938; National Archives of Australia
- RAAF service cards for Wirraway aircraft, National
Archives of Australia,
Series A10297 Block 107
For additional detailed information regarding the Wirraway, go to the
Wirraway Technical Details page